For the following 9 Questions
Read the following interview and answer the given questions based on that. Some words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. A pioneering new book, Gender and Green Governance, explores a central question : If women had adequate representation in forestry institutions, would it make a difference to them, their communities and forests as a national resource ? Interview with the author.
Why has access to forests been such a conflict-ridden issue ?
This is not surprising. Forests constitute not just community and national wealth, but global wealth. But for millions, forests are also critical for livelihoods and their daily lives.
Your first book, Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes (1986), Was about forests. Is there an evolution of argument here ?
Yes indeed. In Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes, I had argued that social forestry, with its top-down implementation and focus on commercial species, was neither ‘social’ nor ‘forestry’, and would protect neither forests nor village livelihoods. The answer, I argued, lay in allowing forest communities to manage local forests. Finally, in 1990, India launched the joint forestmanagement programme and Nepal also started community forestry. So I decided to see for myself how community forestry was actually doing.Between 1995 and 1999, I travelled extensively across India and Nepal and found a paradox : Forests were indeed becoming greener but women’s problem of firewood shortages persisted and in many cases had become more acute. Also, despite their high stakes in forests,women continued to be largely excluded from forest management. I coined the term “participatory exclusions” to describe this. However, the current book is less about women’s exclusion. I ask :What if women were present in forest governance ? What difference would that make ?
But has this question not been raised before?
Economists researching environmental collective action have paid little attention to gender.Scholars from other disciplines focussing on gender and governance have been concerned mainly with women’s near absence from governance institutions. The presumption is that once women are present all good things will follow. But can we assume this? No. Rural women’srelationship with forests is complex.On the one hand, their everyday dependence on forests for firewood, fodder etc., creates astrong stake in conservation. On the other, the same dependence can compel them to extract heavily from forests. As one landless woman told me : ‘Of course, it hurts me to cut a green branch but what do I do if my children are hungry?’ Taking an agnostic position, I decided to test varied propositions, controlling for other factors.
What did you find ?
First, women’s greater presence enhances their effective voice in decision-making. Andthere is a critical mass effect. If forest management groups have 25-33 percent female membersin their executive committees it significantly increases the likelihood of women attendingmeetings, speaking up and holding office. However, the inclusion of landless women makes aparticular difference. When present in sufficient numbers they are more likely to attend meetingsand voice their concerns than landed women. So what matters is not just including more women,but more poor women.Second, and unexpectedly, groups with more women typically make stricter forest use rules.Why is this the case ? Mainly because they receive poorer forests from the forest department. Toregenerate these they have to sacrifice their immediate needs. Women from households withsome land have some fallback. But remarkably even in groups with more landless women,although extraction is higher, they still balance self-interest with conservation goals, when placedin decision-making positions.
Third, groups with more women outperform other groups in improving forest conditions,despite getting poorer forests. Involving women substantially improves protection and conflictresolution, helps the use of their knowledge of local biodiversity, and raises children’s awarenessabout conservation.
What was author’s view on “Social Forestry Scheme” ?
Which of the following is one of the reasons of forests being a conflict-ridden issue ?
The author is advocating inclusion of
Which of the following best describes “participatory exclusion”, as used in the interview?
In the second question, the interviewer asked– ‘Is there an evolution of argument here ?’ Which of the following best describes that ?
What percent of female members in the Executive Committee for Forest Management is being recommended by the author ?
Why does author say, ‘Rural women’s relationship with forests is complex’ ?
Landless women, when in decision making role
When more women are involved, which of the following also happens ?
Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning of the word/group of words printed in bold.
For the following 5 Questions
Which of the phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below eachsentence should replace the word/phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammaticallycorrect ? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, mark (e) as theanswer.
The abduction and return of the local leader within twenty-four hours on Wednesday has left some lose end that have been intriguing investigators probing the case.
According to the investigators, the hammer used in the crime was the one who is used by security guards to sound the hourly bell on a metal plate while on duty.
The fraud comes at a time when the unregulated microfinance industry is facing a crisis on its way of high interest rates and low repayment of loans.
Preliminary investigation revealed that the woman had committed suicide on account of her failed attempt to enter the country.
Frustrated families of the missing people have sought access to all decuments and data concerning the search, and the inclusion of international experts in the inquiry.
For the following 12 Questions
In the following passage there are blanks, each of which hasbeen numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words aresuggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.With the announcement that he would donate Rs. 8,846 crore of his equity in the companyto the philanthropic trust he controls, the Founder and Chairman of Infotech giant Wipro Ltd. ,Azim Premji has set the .....(19)..... very high for other mega rich businessmen of the country. The28th richest man in the world, and India’s third richest, could not have made a better and moresound ....(20)... choice than this. His Azim Premji Foundation is already working in the rural areasof the country to improve the quality of education and is now in the process of setting up auniversity for the poor. This .....(21)..... will be a welcome addition to the kitty of a sector that hasthe capability to transform India but is badly handicapped due to the lack of adequate funding.Other IT majors Infosys, MindTree, TCS and HCL also support programmes that support socialequity.At a time when India’s economic footprint on the global stage is rising, the .....(22)....between the different strata of society has also been increasing. This is not a positivedevelopment and the underprivileged sections need to be equipped with life skills so that they toocan be a part of the growth story. A very basic requirement of this life skills development is toeducate them and make them employable. The fact that most of the heads of these IT majors are......(23)..... first-generation entrepreneurs ......(24)..... that education, more than anything else, isa great leveler. At the same time, the improved economic conditions will also push up people intothe middle-class bracket and make India a much more attractive market.According to Forbes, which keeps a tab on the ....(25).... of the rich and famous, India has69 billionaires. Yet how many consider ......(26).... as a priority when it comes to spending ?Industry reports indicate that Indians spend about Rs. 30,000 crore a year on charitable ....(27)....and this includes the money spent by companies on their corporate social responsibilityprogrammes. This is not .....(28).... and Indians, especially the corporate czars, have much moreability to give. In a foreword to Corporate Social Responsibility in India, MS Swaminathancorrectly says : “Just as good ecology is good business, good philanthropy will also be goodbusiness in the ....(29).... term”. Should the country institutionalise CSR interventions to deal....(30)... malnutrition, education, health, unemployment and poverty ? The government wouldwelcome a helping hand, wouldn’t it ?
Find out the appropriate word in the Passage?