Software Testing Questions & Answers (Compiled from UPSC, SSC ,PSC ,IBPS previous question papers)

  • What is test scenario and test case? Please explain in detail?

  • A

    Test Scenario: Test scenario is like laying out plans for testing the product, environmental condition, and number of team members required, making test plans, making test cases and what all features are to be tested for the product. Test scenario is very much dependent on the product to be tested. Test scenario is made before the actual testing starts.

    Test Case: Test case is a document which provides the steps to be executed which has been planned earlier. It also depends on the type of product to be tested. Number of test cases is not fixed for any product.

  • Tester with develop meant knowledge will be more effective .justify?

  • AIf tester has experience in Development, it will be useful when testing for logical thinking where the error occurs, what is the cause? He can guess the functionality of component? He can easily understand the application environment? Those are plus points which people have Development experience. Precisely he can justify that either functionality is wrong or right and can analyze the defects.
  • How does u develop test harness?

  • A

    1. Test Environment Test Bed

    2. Test Environment S/W and H/W

    3. Test Bed: Test Documents like Test Plan Document, Test Case Document.

    4. Test Environment means

    a. Test Bed installation and configuration

    b. Network connectivity’s

    c. All the Software/ tools Installation and configuration

    d. Coordination with Vendors and others

  • What is destructive testing, and what are its benefits?

  • A

    Destructive testing includes methods where material is broken down in to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as strength, toughness and hardness. For example, finding the quality of a weld is good enough to withstand extreme pressure and also to verify the properties of a material.

    Benefits of Destructive Testing (DT)

    - Verifies properties of a material
    - Determines quality of welds
    - Helps you to reduce failures, accidents and costs
    - Ensures compliance with regulations

  • What are the basic elements of defect report format?

  • A

    The basic elements of Defect Report Format are:

    1. Project name
    2. Module name
    3. Defect detected on
    4. Defect detected by
    5. Defect id
    6. Defect name
    7. Snapshot of the defect(if the defect is in the non reproducible environment)
    8. Priority, severity, status
    9. Defect resolved by
    10. Defect resolved on

  • Explain the concept of defect cascading?

  • ADefect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. In this one defect invokes the other defect in the application. When a defect is present in any stage but is not identified, hide to other phases without getting noticed. This will result in increase in number of defects.
  • What is the general testing process?

  • A

    Testing Process:

    1. Test requirements analysis

    2. Creation of Test Strategy (Which includes creation of Test Cases)

    3. Creation of Test Plans (Which includes Test Cases and Test Procedures)

    4. Execution of test cases

    5. Analyze the test results

    6. Report the defects if any



  • What is coverage and what are the different types of coverage techniques?

  • A

    Coverage is a measurement used in software testing to describe the degree to which the source code is tested. There are three basic types of coverage techniques as shown in the following figure:

    Statement coverage: This coverage ensures that each line of source code has been executed and tested.

    Decision coverage: This coverage ensures that every decision (true/false) in the source code has been executed and tested.

    Path coverage: In this coverage we ensure that every possible route through a given part of code is executed and tested.

  • What is comparison testing?

  • A

    Comparison Testing means comparing your software with the better one or you’re Competitor. While comparison Testing we basically compare the Performance of the software. For example If you have to do Comparison Testing of PDF converter(Desktop Based Application) then you will compare your software with your Competitor on the basis of:-

    1. Speed of Conversion PDF file into Word.

    2. Quality of converted file.

  • What is difference between latent and masked defect?

  • A

    The difference between latent and masked defect are:

    - A latent defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure because the conditions that are required to invoke the defect is not meet.

    - A masked defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure just because another defect hides that part of the code from being executed where it is present.

  • Which test cases are written first: white boxes or black boxes?

  • AGenerally, black box test cases are written first and white box test cases later. To write black box test cases we need the requirement documents and design or project plan. All these documents are easily available in the earlier phase of the development. A black box test case does not need functional design of the application but white box testing needs. Structural design of the application is clearer in the later part of project, mostly while executing or designing. For black box testing you need to only analyze from the functional perspective which is easily available from a simple requirement document.
  •  What are the documents required to prepare test plan?

  • AIntroduction, scope, test team and their responsibilities, test environment, S/W & H/W requirements, test data preparation, levels of testing, severity & priority, schedule, risk, automation Plan, features to test, bug life cycle all these are documents of test plan.
  • What are different types of verifications?

  • A

    Verification is static type of software testing which is started in earlier phase of development of software. In this approach we don’t execute the software that the reason it comes in static testing. The product is evaluated by going through the code. Types of verification are:

    Walkthrough: Walkthroughs are informal technique. Where the Developer leader organizing a meeting with team member to take feedback regarding the software. This can be used for the improvement of the software quality. Walkthrough are unplanned in the SDLC cycle.

    Inspection: Inspection is a done by checking of a software product thoroughly with the intention to find out defect and ensuring that software is meeting the user requirements.

  • What are the categories of defects?

  • A

    There are three main categories of defects:

    Wrong: The requirements are implemented incorrectly in the application.

    Missing: When requirement given by the customer and application is unable to meet those application.

    Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but may be an attribute desired by the user of the product.

  • Explain the PDCA cycle.

  • A

    Software testing is an important part of the software development process. In normal software development there are four important steps PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle. The four steps are discussed below:

    Plan: Define the goal and the plan for achieving that goal.

    Do: execute those plan strategy which is planned in plan phase

    Check: Check to make sure that everything is going according to the plan and gets the expected results.

    Act: Act according to that issue.

  • Can you explain the elementary process?

  • A

    Software applications are made up by the help of several elementary processes. There are two types of elementary processes:

    - Dynamic elementary Process: The dynamic elementary involves process of moving data from one location to another location. The location can be within the application and outside the application.

    - Static elementary Process: Static elementary involves maintaining the data of the application.

  • What are different approaches to do Integration Testing?

  • A

    Integration testing is black box testing. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units, to ensure that units work together to complete a specify task. The purpose of integration testing is to confirm that different components of the application interact with each other. Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are same. There are mainly three approaches to do integration testing.

    Top-down Approach: Tests the components by integrating from top to bottom.
    Bottom-up approach: It takes place from the bottom of the control flow to the higher level components
    Big bang approach: In this are different module are joined together to form a complete system and then testing is performed on it.

  • Difference between Verification and Validation:

  • A

    - Verification is Static testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.

    - Verification takes place before validation.

    - Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation evaluates product.

    - Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection where as in Validation testing of actual product.

    - Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.